Knowing the necessary factors and amount of energy needed will give you a direction on the right budget for your solar panel and batteries. Every appliance or electronic device you use is reflected in your amount of energy needed. But, some of those devices are costing you more than others. Do you know which ones? Then you need to calculate the watts each device uses per day. Calculating the energy cost of a specific device is fairly simple. You only need two numbers to get started: the device’s wattage and the number of hours you use it per day

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Check your appliances
Wattage is an amount of electrical power expressed in watts. It is also known as the operating power of a lamp or other electrical appliance expressed in watts. You can figure out how many watts an appliance needs by looking for the data plate. It’s likely to list how many volts, amps, and watts you need to power your appliance.
You might find this information stamped on the back of the appliance. Or you could find the wattage listed on the nameplate

Calculate Watts Per Day
Electricity use over time is measured in Watthours. Multiplying your device’s wattage by the number of hours you use it in a day will give you the number of watthours consumed each day. If your screen television of 200 watts is used for 4hours in a day, then the total watthour consume by your television is 800 watts

Convert WattHours to Kilowatts
Electricity is measured in kilowatthours on your bill, not watthours. One kilowatt is equal to 1,000 watts, so to calculate how many kWh a device uses, divide the watthours from the previous step by 1,000. Using our previous example, this means you would divide 800 watthours by 1,000, resulting in 0.8 kWh. Apply this method on other appliances in your home

The Capacity of the Battery
Battery capacity is measured in Amp Hours (e.g. 17AH). You need to convert this to Watt Hours by multiplying the AH figure by the battery voltage (e.g. 12V). This is just the simple calculation below
X (Battery size in AH) x Y (Battery Voltage) = Z (Power available in watthours)
For a 1000AH, 12V battery the Watt Hours figure is 1000(X) x 12(Y) = 12000 WH (Z). This means the battery could supply 12000W for 1 hour, 6000W for 2 hours or 4000w for 3 hours i.e. the more energy you take, the faster the battery discharges.
From the above example, my TV screen with 50watt use for 4 hours a day will require 200 watthours, will work for 6 hours with the above battery capacity.
Repeat this for all the appliances you wish to use, then add the results to establish total consumption like below.
TV 20w on for 2 hours per day = 40w per day
Radio 10w on for 5 hours per day = 50w per day
Water pump (20w) on for 20mins per day = 6.66w per day
Main Light 30w on for 3h per day = 90w per day
Spotlights 10w on for 1h per day = 10w per day
Total = 196w per day

Calculate energy produce from your solar panel overtime
Knowing the energy generated from your solar panel is needed. The power generation rating of a Solar panel is also given in Watts (10W solar panel). In Theory, to calculate the energy it can supply to the battery, you multiply Watts (of the solar panel) by the hours exposed to sunshine. In practice, it’s quite different due to external factor that cannot be controlled. This includes weather condition, rainfall, topography and location, and position of the solar panel.
Therefore we can assume that if 150w solar panel is exposed to sunlight for 5 hours, 750watts of energy will be supplied into the battery
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